Glossary

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G

Ground Level Enhancement (GLE)

    Since 1950 about 70 Ground level enhancements have been detected mainly by neutron monitors.
    Under special conditions, shock waves can accelerate protons and electrons ejected by solar flares and coronal mass ejections to energies which generate particle cascades in the atmosphere. This additional particle flux appears in ground level detectors as a sudden increase of the measured rate.
    It is important to detect GLEs in time since they can influence and even destroy electronic systems of satellites and on Earth. The radiation increase is also dangerous for astronauts and airline staff.
    A detailed description of GLEs gives the paper of Bieber et.al. .
    Examples of GLEs measured by neutron monitors can be found on the website of the neutron monitor data base.